The life of a coyote puppy is highly guarded and dictated by its parents. Most of the time, the puppies are hidden in some underground bunker or den to ensure the pups are protected from adverse weather conditions as well as any dangerous predators, like other canines or fishers. This is especially important when the parents are off hunting. However, this does not mean coyotes puppies do not communicate with their parents or each other. Coyote pups need to be able to communicate effectively in case they run into trouble, are in pain or when they are hungry.
Sounds made by coyote puppies especially those below the age of one month are hard to differentiate from the sounds made by either pups from dogs, foxes, or wolves. Like the gurgling a baby makes, these sounds are often unintelligible, even to other coyotes and the pup may not even be aware he is creating them. The sounds in most cases are distress calls or calls when pups are hungry.
Since pups have not fully developed their vocal systems, when they are very young, their calls are often limited and the puppies make sounds only when absolutely necessary. For instance, you are likely to hear yells from pups as a sign of a distress call to their parents asking for help. This may happen if they are scared or feel threatened. Yelps from pulps have high intensity, are lound and have longer range to reach their parents when they are far away. Besides, yelps from pulps can be followed by barks as they try to intimidate the intruder. A combination of yelps and barks should be a sure sign for a coyote parent that something is amiss.
Additionally, you are likely to hear whining from little pups if they are in imminent danger, or when they are hungry. Like with domestic dogs, whining in puppies is often associated with hunger and does not trigger an immediate response from parents.
As the pups grow and exceed on month, they begin to become more playful and can make various types of sounds. Before the pups are three months old, they are often left behind by their parents, as they lack experience required for a hunt and are still quite vulnerable. For instance, the juveniles are likely to bark at prey, frightening it away from other than wait patiently and hunt. Also, as coyotes are nocturnal, many dangers loom at night for a baby coyotes. Not only do the parents need to look out for other canines, large cats and fishers, for whom they themselves are no match but they also need to look out for birds of prey, like owls. Coyote pups are left at home, where they develop much of their skill through play, while remaining secure in the den. They will also expand their vocal abilities by mimicking sounds their parents make and in playing with one another.
Differentiating between the sounds made by coyote puppies and those made by puppies from a fox or a wolf is such a difficult as they have not mastered how to make the calls and when to make them. However, in the juvenile days, they can make clear sounds for specific and urgent reasons such as hunger or imminent danger. When the pups are a few months old, they will begin to produce more adult sounds and have mastered some control over their vocal abilities, making it easier for them to communicate with their pack as well as signal to their parents.