Spring Coyote Calling Deep Snow


by Duane Fronek

Spring time can be a slow time of year for allot of hunters. Turkey season isnt quite here and most other game seasons are closed. But there is a silver lining in that dark cloud hanging over us this time of year, Coyotes! In the north coyotes are paired and females are bred for the most part, but havent yet had their pups. Hunting coyotes this time of year can help curb deer depredation for the following winter and even the current up and coming fawn crop by taking a few of these coyotes out. Also the fur can and is still usable this time of year and can be tanned for hanging on your wall or even a hat.


The above video was filmed with the author in early March in Northern Wisconsin. It's a long unedited clip but we wanted to show new hunters the frequency and variety of calls as well as the duration of a typical hunt.  You will see the entire call set from the time we got in place through the final shot.

For the most part this time of year coyotes have been pretty much burned out if calling is popular in your area, but there's still a few tricks you can pull out of the hat to put a coyote on the ground or should I say snow if you had a winter like we did here in northern WI. One of the most difficult things to deal with is the deep snow thats accumulated through the winter. For one, the temps are warming and the snow gets soft and crystalized making each step you take a workout that's rival to anything a treadmill could throw at you, but its also difficult for the coyotes to get through it as well. To combat this I like to concentrate my calling to early mornings where the previous nights cold temps freezes the snow making it easy to walk on top and in turn easier for the coyote to travel and respond as well, before the mid-morning temps start turning the snow to quicksand again.

What makes these coyotes vulnerable this time of year is the fact that even though the snow is deep, it's going down in depth, which they depended on to slow deer down earlier in the year, but they could stay fairly on top to chase these deer down, because the snow wasn't crystallized and slushy. So the coyotes after eating well are now getting a little growl in their belly. Even small game such as rabbits and hares are getting tough to come by due to it being easier for those critters to get around faster, plus their numbers are down just because its the cycle of nature and multiple factors of predation, die-off, hunting, etc. Most game populations are at their lowest this time of year just before the spring baby boom.

So where do you find the coyotes? Well coyotes are creatures of habit and oppurtunity, and they will still be holding close to the deer concentrations here in the north,looking for an oppurtunity to take a weakend animal or feeding off an old kill even if it is just bones. They'll also hang on the rivers that are still frozen with water starting to open because deer will be there as well. The deer are browsing these areas for plants just starting to pop under water and buds on tags etc that are starting to plump. Everything out there in the wild has a cycle and knowing whats going on out there will put you where you need to be.

When I call this time of year I like to just hit the howler once or twice, then wait about 10 min. Coyotes this time of year are now paired like I mentioned, but also have staked their claim to a piece of ground and usually wont tolerate another on their turf. If I dont get a response off the howl, I'll switch into a few deer distress bawls to sweeten the pot or a short series of bunny cries, then silent for a few minutes. Still if no takers I pull out my little trick that has worked beautiful this time of year and works on that territorial instinct just a tad more. I scream a short YIPE! Then go right into the distress I was using for just a few seconds, then stop.

I've had coyotes pop out just like that on that combo that were reluctant to show because of being burned out and call shy to the usual sounds they've been accustom to thru the winter. I like using an open reed call thats easy to blow for the combo, because you can switch from yip to distress without missing a beat. I believe it gives the impression the coyote just suffered a kick or bite and the the instant distress is from the instant retaliation the prey just recieved. I've been playing with that combo the last few years and have had excellent results from it in tough calling conditions like late season. And when you get that coyote coming in and your zeroed in on him/her and ready to shoot, BARK! if it's running in or moving. The coyote will come to a stop increasing your odds of a well placed shot that connects and puts it to the ground. So if you want to kill the late winter blues and spring turkey fever, go harass a few yotes, it"ll brighten your day

Coyote Call Calling Success

by Duane Fronek

Predator calling has gained real popularity in the last decade or so, especially with the rising interest in QDM and deer populations in general as well as turkey populations. A lot of callers get into it to cut down on the predator populations in their area that are working over their favorite game animal or to help pass the time when other species aren't open. Either way it's a win win situation all around, not just for the prey species in the area or our peace of mind, but for the coyotes health and well being as well. But what determines your calling success?

Coyote Calling Success
They're a lot of factors that will determine your success in calling predators. You see callers that seem to connect everytime out or pics with a stack of coyotes, sure these guys do have skill and some seem lucky because they are relatively new to the calling game. But all too often I hear hunters comparing themselves to other callers and commenting why can't I get that many, or they think they're doing something wrong. In reality most aren't doing anything wrong. It's not the camo you wear or the brand of e-caller you use or even the weapon you chose. Sure these things can help you connect at the moment of truth, but the determining factors are things that are pretty much out of your control.

For the most part you need to have the population of coyotes if you want to kill stacks of coyotes. In some areas of the country there's a lot higher coyote densities than in other areas. Populations can vary extremely even within a state, just like different areas you hunt locally can be better or worse than others on your normal haunts.

These populations are affected by factors such as habitat and available prey on the whole year round. Some states have more coyotes than others, seemingly the western states but also states like IN. Granted coyote numbers are rising all across the country. But in reality, even though the populations are on the rise, a caller that say kills a couple 100 coyotes out west somewhere in a couple months couldn't go to the U.P. of Michigan and kill the same amount of coyotes in the same amount of time, for the simple fact that the coyote population isn't the same or doesn't even compare.

Another factor out of our control is geographical or the lay of the land. Where we live or hunt can determine our success as well. Wide open plains or flatland areas can give us a visual advantage as well as a wind advantage. Where as the woodland and hilly or ridge areas common in the mid-west and eastern states and even southeastern states can have some disadvantages, making calling a little more challenging. Wind currents in these locations can be tricky to navigate, especially in hilly country where winds can circle back due to terrain. The terrain itself can be challenging in regards to visual and the ability or lack of being able to see an incoming coyote before it see's you, or the greater chance of them coming in the back door on you and catching you off guard. They could be in your lap without notice. That's where hunting with a partner or two can help combat that issue.

So the next time you find yourself examining your success, especially for the new comers to the sport, look at these factors realistically. These factors play a big part in your successes in this game and a lot of times I see hunters over looking these factors and are too hard on themselves as to why they aren't connecting. I tell a lot of new people to the sport, just because you didn't call something in, doesn't mean you're doing something wrong, a lot of times it's just the coyotes just aren't there. You have to have a coyote within earshot to get him to come in.

Once a caller realizes what potential their individual area holds, it will give you more confidence in what you're doing. Balancing out your expectations to the areas actual potential will go a long way in your success as a caller. Once you have that realization, then you can concentrate on the other determining factors specific to your area such as what is the prey base for the time of year you're hunting. Are the coyotes feeding on rodents or is it winter in the north and they're concentrated where deer are. Or is it breeding season in you're area or just about time for pups.

Taking in the whole picture over all, then breaking it down to the finer points will ultimately give you a better understanding of whats going on out there make your success more rewarding. Good luck hunting!

How to make a fur hat from a coyote pelt

by Duane Fronek

Finished Coyote Hat
A lot has been written about predator hunting, but what about the fur. What do you do with it. Do you sell it or have it mounted or tanned? How about making your own hat, any style you want. Its really not as hard as one may think. Making a hat out of a predator you fooled into thinking it was coming to a free dinner can be rewarding and another way of enjoying the hunt even more with a keepsake and a story.

If you’re thinking of making a fur hat for yourself this is for you. The following article with the pics and a little studying you'll be able to make a fur hat fairly easy. First you’ll need a tanned pelt. You can have your hides tanned at various tanneries or a local taxidermist can have it sent out to get tanned for you. Normally it takes about one coyote or fox for a hat and getting one tanned varies by tanneries and taxidermists. Price can range between $25-$75 depending on who you have do it, with an average of around $45 which covers shipping etc. Moyle mink and tannery out of Idaho is a reputable tannery and does a lot of tanning for trappers and hunters. If you don’t know how to prep a hide for shipping, you can contact them and they will give you instructions or you can take it to a taxidermist that can do it as well for a fee.

Once you have your pelt tanned you’ll need a few other materials to make the hat. I like using upholstery thread for sewing, it’s heavy duty and durable, you can use dental floss as well. You’ll need a couple good needles, some utility razor blades, scissors, a fine tip marker like a sharpie, a measuring tape, a ruler, Fabric glue like Bish’s tear mender, a large paper grocery bag for making the pattern and something for the inside liner of the hat. For lining I've used everything from felt, polar fleece or quilted material like you find in quilted flannel shirts. Most of these materials can be found in any sewing sections of most dept stores.

Mountain Man Style Hat

Now you need to determine what style of hat you want to make. I make 3 different styles basically. They are the Mountain Man with feet and legs on it or the easier one the Daniel Boone with just a tail, then there is the Trooper style with ear flaps and a front flap and a woman’s style that's a basic hat with a rim of fur around it and a tail off the back, the pattern of which I got by taking apart a woman’s dept store fake fur hat and made a pattern out of it. You can basically make any type or style of hat you want just by using old hats and using them as a pattern, even a bonnet.

Once you decide what type of hat you want to make, its time to get some measurements. The first measurement is the circumference of your head, then a measurement from just above your eyebrow over your head to the base of your skull. This will give you a good fit and a starting point to laying out your pattern. Of course if you’re using an old hat that fits you as a pattern it isn't necessary, you can just use the store bought hat as a pattern (fig 3, 3a,3b). Now back to measurements,the circumference measurement you divide by 2 which will give the width of your pattern for say a Mountain Man style hat (Fig. 1, 1a at the bottom of this article). So for ex. your measurement is 22” your pattern width would be 11” (see dia.) The other measurement would give you the length of your pattern, usually 15”-16”. With those measurements draw a rectangle on your grocery bag, that will be the pattern to lay on your pelt when you’re ready. For the trooper style or Daniel Boone style you basically would make two rectangles (A) 11” long and 3.5”- 4” wide, which would be the pattern for around the head and then a circle (B) with a circumference of 22” which would be the top (see Fig 4, 4a. at the bottom of this article)
Trooper Style Hat

Once you have the style and pattern you want figured out and drawn out on the leather side of the pelt (note: when doing ear flaps, make sure you flip the pattern over to draw the other flap,or you'll have two ear flaps for just one side) it's time to cut the pieces out using the utility razor blades, just carefully cut on the lines you have drawn, taking your time.

Once your pieces are cut out, lay them out fur side up to see how the fur lays and arrange them to where they are going to go when sewn together. At this point you can mark on the leather side numbers or letters to correspond to which piece gets sewn to which piece, like A to A , B to B etc. Now its time to sew the pieces together. When I sew I basically use a loop stitch. I start by butting up the two pieces I want to sew at the moment up to each other. Then start on one end. When I sew, I sew so that it's fur to fur and the leather side is on the outside. Basically sewing the hat with it inside out (Fig 5 and 3a at the bottom of this article) . This keeps the fur out of your way when sewing and also hides your stitching when your done with the final hat. The sewing is the most time consuming part. At the end of each stitch run when you need to tie off and start with new thread, dab a little fabric glue on the knots you tie off, it helps to keep them from coming undone over time if you're not the best seamstress. After you have the hat sewn together, try it on before you make and sew in the liner. If it's snug thats fine, the leather stretches and will fit like a glove in no time. If it seems loose, you can take it in a little by re-sewing the side seams by cutting the seam out with the razor on both sides of the stitching, then sewing up again, you shouldn't have to do this if you measured right.

Once you have your pieces sewn together at the seams etc, your hat will basically be done as far as the fur part goes, it'll just be inside out. Now is the time to flip it or turn it so it's fur out. You should have a nice hat taking shape. What you want to do next is make the liner. For making the liner you just use the basic pattern you used for the hat and trace it out on your fabric and cut it out and sew it like you did the fur part. This will be a lot easier sewing for the most part. Once you have your liner made, it's time to slip it inside the main hat and positioned so it sits inside evenly all around the edges etc. Once you have it positioned you can use a little fabric glue in a few spots and let dry to hold it in place, then sew the liner in all around the edge where the liner and leather meet to seal it up. If you want the face of the animal on your hat you can basically cut the face from the pelt just behind the ears and tack sew it to the front of your hat. There's many other ways to incorporate the head into the hat with this way being the simplest and easiest for a first timer.

By now you should have yourself a hat you made yourself from a critter you harvested yourself. Hopefully these pics and writing will help you accomplish making you're own hat. Don't be afraid to try your own ideas, whats wrote here is just the basics on how to go about it. Good luck and have fun.

Custom from a store bought hat used as a pattern

Figure 1

Figure 1a

Figure 1b

Figure 2

Figure 3a

Figure 3b

Figure 4

Figure 4a

Figure 5

Hat Supplies

Home Tanning your Coyote

By Duane Fronek

If you've been hunting coyotes long enough or just getting started there will come a time you'll want to have one tanned. Whether its your first coyote or a particular one you were after or just a unique color or hunt, you'll want one for yourself. But some questions arise. Where do I get it tanned or can I do it myself and how do I go about getting it tanned either way.

You can take it to a taxidermist if you want, but for some you'll want to try your hand at it. Tanning really isn't all that difficult and with all the info out there today which is easily accessible you can do it yourself.

I've been tanning my own pelts for over 30 years now and have a nice simple way of going about it. I've tried and used many different tans over the years and each have their own pluses and negatives. Negatives being difficulty in having just the right amount of ingredients and also toxicity.

For now this article will focus on the simplest of tans that is great for a wall hanging and both work quite well for that purpose.
To get started you'll need to prep the hide for the tan. After skinning the coyote you need to flesh or remove the fat and excess meat from the pelt. This can be done by scraping it off by placing the hide flesh side up on a fleshing beam and using a draw knife to scrape the fat and meat off. I know of others that will just use a big knife and lay the pelt over a 2x6 or similar and scrape the hide so it's clean of meat and fat.

Once the fleshing is done you can do one of two things. You can lay the pelt out flesh side up and salt it with canning/pickling salt non-iodized. And then leave it sit over night, this helps set the hair on the hide and prevents spoilage, especially if the hide isn't fresh. If the hide is spoiling already, no amount of salt will stop the fur from falling out. That's why is important to start on the hide as soon as possible after skinning or freeze it after skinning. If you're using a hide thats been frozen then thawed and fleshed, it's best to salt over night. The other way way is to get the hide in the tan or pickle right after fleshing and washing.

Before placing the hide in the pickle bath/tan it's important to wash the hide after the fleshing and/or salting. What I do is put a little dawn dish soap in a 5 gal. bucket and fill with cold water and immerse the hide in it and slosh it around until the water is dirty. Then I'll dump the wash water and refill the bucket with cold water only and rinse the hide, plunging it in and out of the water till the water is dirty again. Keep refilling and rinsing until the water is fairly clean, this gets rid of blood, dirt etc. in the fur and makes for a good clean pelt. After you wash the hide hang it and let it drain for a half hour, somewhere cool and out of the sun.

While your hide is draining it's time to mix up your pickle or tan. This step is done prior to the actual tanning but is also considered a tan or acid tan. Chemicals today are more enviromentally friendly and safer than they were 20 yrs ago. So take a 5 gal. bucket and dump in 2 gal. of white vinegar and 2 gal. cold water and 4 lbs. of pickling canning salt. Mix this solution thoroughly with a something like a broom handle or something similar made of wood or plastic. What you have now is a pickle bath or an acid tan depending on what you do later. Now that this is mixed up and stirred well, take your drained coyote hide and immerse it in this solution and stir it around until all parts are submerged. You now leave the pelt in this solution for 72 hrs. or 3 days, stirring it a couple times a day. After the 3rd day you can check to see if its done by pressing your thumbnail into the flesh side of the hide, if the indentation stays, it's done.

Now it's time to neutralize the hide. Take the coyote pelt out of the pickle/tan solution and rinse in cold water for about 5 min. then hang outside to drain for a half hour. While your hide is draining dump in a cup of baking soda gradually into the pickle/tan solution to neutralize. Add slowly as the baking soda will make the solution foam. Once the baking soda has been added and the foaming stops, discard the whole solution and rinse the bucket. Now add 4 gal. of cold water and 12 oz. of baking soda or 3oz. of baking soda per gal. of water. Now take your drained coyote pelt and add to the baking soda water and agitate it by sloshing it around and do this for 15-20 min.(no longer) this will neutralize the acid in the hide.

Once the time is up, remove the hide and rinse again in cold water and hang to dry. At this point you can either mix up the tan from the link I provided above and follow its directions. Or you can continue on with finishing the hide as an acid tan. First I like to wash the hide one more time using woolite. Just get the fur wet and rub in woolite into the fur side to wash the fur, then rinse in clear cold water a couple times until the soap is gone. Then hang and let drain another half hour.

Once the hide has drained of excess water you need to oil the flesh side of the hide with a tanning oil. You can get the tanning oil through the link I provided. Its special in the sense that its water soluable and will mix with water and soak into a wet hide. I usually mix the tanning oil with water 50/50 using water I boiled and adding to the oil. You can make your own by using neatsfoot oil from a farm supply store thats used for oiling saddles and tack. When using this oil you will have to mix in dawn dishsoap with the oil so that it will mix with the water, about 2 tbs of soap to a pint of oil, then add hot water. Its a little messier than the premade tanning oil, but does work. Once you have your oil hot by adding boiling water, take and lay your coyote pelt out, fur side down. Then pour little amounts of the heated oil onto the flesh side of the hide, rubbing it in by hand. Once the hide is covered in the oil let it set until any puddles and excess oil has soaked in, usually a couple hours.

Now it's drying time and breaking time. Breaking the hide is what makes the leather soft. What you do is continue to let the hide dry. As its drying the thinner spots of leather will dry first, the spots will feel slightly dry and stiff to the touch. On those dry spots, take and stretch and pull the hide on those spots with your fingers, you'll noticed these spots will immediately turn white when you stretch them, this is called breaking. What you're doing is breaking the fibers in the leather to make it soft. Only work on spots that are drying, as the wet spots will only get hard if you work them when wet. The reason is when its wet, it doesnt break the fiber, it only compresses them, so when its dry it'll be stiff. It's a slow process, but the good news is you only have to break the dry spots for a couple mins a couple times a day then leave sit inbetween, then eventually the complete hide will be done and broke in time. As the dry spots become larger you can run them over a boards edge to help break the hide. Each spot you break will have some dampness to it after breaking which will dry again, you'll know when its done breaking when the hide stays soft and pliable after not being worked for a while.

Once the hide is broke or close to it, I like to take and lay the hide out fur side up and dump corn meal on the fur, then rub the corn meal in for about 15 min. of non stop rubbing. Then take and shake out the cormeal, this removes any residual dirts and oils from the fur and makes the fur feel soft and silky. The dusty residue will fluff out of the fur on your final hide breaking sessions.


Once you're done you'll have a nice hide to hang on the wall next to the fire place or gun rack or in the man cave. And a satisfaction of doing something yourself with a fur you took yourself.

Spring Coyote Calling Deep Snow

Deer In A Clear Cut
On The River
by Duane Fronek

Spring time can be a slow time of year for a lot of hunters. Turkey season isn't quite here and most other game seasons are closed. But there is a silver lining in that dark cloud hanging over us this time of year, Coyotes! In the north coyotes are paired and females are bred for the most part, but haven't yet had their pups. Hunting coyotes this time of year can help curb deer depred
47 Pound Coyote
ation for the following winter and even the current up and coming fawn crop by taking a few of these coyotes out. Also the fur can and is still usable this time of year and can be tanned for hanging on your wall or even a hat.

For the most part this time of year coyotes have been pretty much burned out if calling is popular in your area, but there's still a few tricks you can pull out of the hat to put a coyote on the ground or should I say snow if you had a winter like we did here in northern WI.

One of the most difficult things to deal with is the deep snow that's accumulated through the winter. For one, the temps are warming and the snow gets soft and crystallized making each step you take a workout that's rival to anything a treadmill could throw at you, but its also difficult for the coyotes to get through it as well. To combat this I like to concentrate my calling to early mornings where the previous nights cold temps freezes the snow making it easy to walk on top and in turn easier for the coyote to travel and respond as well, before the mid-morning temps start turning the snow to quicksand again.

What makes these coyotes vulnerable this time of year is the fact that even though the snow is deep, it's going down in depth, which they depended on to slow deer down earlier in the year, but they could stay fairly on top to chase these deer down, because the snow wasn't crystallized and slushy. So the coyotes after eating well are now getting a little growl in their belly. Even small game such as rabbits and hares are getting tough to come by due to it being easier for those critters to get around faster, plus their numbers are down just because its the cycle of nature and multiple factors of depredation, die-off, hunting, etc. Most game populations are at their lowest this time of year just before the spring baby boom.

So where do you find the coyotes? Well coyotes are creatures of habit and opportunity, and they will still be holding close to the deer concentrations here in the north,looking for an opportunity to take a weaken animal or feeding off an old kill even if it is just bones. They'll also hang on the rivers that are still frozen with water starting to open because deer will be there as well. The deer are browsing these areas for plants just starting to pop under water and buds on tags etc that are starting to plump. Everything out there in the wild has a cycle and knowing whats going on out there will put you where you need to be.

When I call this time of year I like to just hit the howler once or twice, then wait about 10 min. Coyotes this time of year are now paired like I mentioned, but also have staked their claim to a piece of ground and usually wont tolerate another on their turf. If I don't get a response off the howl, I'll switch into a few deer distress bawls to sweeten the pot or a short series of bunny cries, then silent for a few minutes. Still if no takers I pull out my little trick that has worked beautiful this time of year and works on that territorial instinct just a tad more. I scream a short YIPE! Then go right into the distress I was using for just a few seconds, then stop. I've had coyotes pop out just like that on that combo that were reluctant to show because of being burned out and call shy to the usual sounds they've been accustom to thru the winter. I like using an open reed call that's easy to blow for the combo, because you can switch from yip to distress without missing a beat. I believe it gives the impression the coyote just suffered a kick or bite and the the instant distress is from the instant retaliation the prey just received. I've been playing with that combo the last few years and have had excellent results from it in tough calling conditions like late season. And when you get that coyote coming in and your zeroed in on him/her and ready to shoot,BARK! if it's running in or moving. The coyote will come to a stop increasing your odds of a well placed shot that connects and puts it to the ground.

So if you want to kill the late winter blues and spring turkey fever, go harass a few yotes, it"ll brighten your day.

Fall Coyote Hunting Tips

Most hunters do their coyote hunting after deer seasons end. They usually don’t get out until December or January. While winter hunting is fun, fall hunting may be the best hunting of the year. Coyotes haven’t yet been educated by deer hunters or other predator hunters. When deer hunting gets into that period just before pre-rut it seems like action hits a lull. That is a great time to sneak in a few fall coyote hunts. Some states have very liberal coyote hunting seasons that allow hunting in late August and early September. This is a great time of year to put a few coyotes on the ground.
As summer comes to an end pups mature and start venturing out on their own. They’re forced to make their own kills to survive. This is the time to use your in distress calls. The classic rabbit in distress call that may not get much attention in February will often have young coyotes falling over each other to find out what the ruckus is all about. Predators respond to distress calls for a number of reasons other than hunger. Often times they’re just curious about what is going on within their territory. Younger coyotes may be attracted to the novelty of the sound while older, more established coyotes move in to protect a potential meal on their hunting grounds.
Distress calls are great for bringing coyotes in but don’t stop calling after you’ve made a shot. Veteran coyote hunters almost always hit their hurt pup call after putting a bullet through a ‘yote any time of year. This technique can be even more effective in the fall when young coyotes are often still living as a pack with others.
Another advantage to hunting coyotes in the fall is added cover. It’s much easier to find a good place to hide when trees and brush are still covered in leaves. Keep in mind, the coyotes have more cover too. If you’re hunting in a forested area, they can get pretty close before you lay eyes on them. Being still and scent free is just as important, if not more, in the fall. Don’t forget to hunt with the wind in your face but remember a coyote’s first instinct will be to circle downwind of where they believe their next meal is.
Many of your winter time hotspots can be very good in the fall. If you’ve seen coyotes in a location before, there is a good chance you’ll find them there again. Keep a log book of your success in all of the locations you have access too. Don’t be afraid to try new spots but start with my most productive hunting areas first.
Fall coyote hunting is often overlooked… but it may be the best time of the year to get up close and personal with some song dogs.



New Hampshire Teen Attacked By Coyote

CONCORD, N.H. - Fish and Game Department personnel are alerting residents of Hopkinton, N.H., to the likely presence of a rabid coyote, following an attack on a local teenager yesterday (February 22, 2012).

The young man was walking the family dog in a wooded area near his home when the coyote approached him. The dog ran away, at which point the coyote attacked the teenager. The teen defended himself, reportedly punching the coyote in the nose until the coyote left the scene. During the interaction, the teenager was scratched and possibly bitten by the coyote. The teen sought medical treatment, and is receiving a course of rabies shots as a precaution.

Though there are occasional reports of rabid wild animals attacking humans in New Hampshire, Pat Tate, wildlife biologist with Fish and Game, said that the coyote attack was highly unusual. "It's the first time we know of that a coyote has attacked a person in New Hampshire," he said. Tate noted that earlier in the week, a local dog was also attacked by a coyote, and required veterinary care. "We suspect that it's the same coyote, and that the coyote is rabid, given the uncharacteristic aggressiveness of the attacks. For local residents, that means they should be aware of the presence of coyotes, and they should know the signs of a rabid animal." He added, "This incident, scary as it was, gives us no reason to fear wild animals in general."

Tate points out that it's not that unusual to see a coyote at any time of day or night. "The species is spread out around the state. Seeing a coyote in woodland landscape, one that's acting normal, is fine," he said. Normal behavior, for a coyote, is expressing no interest in humans or pets. "If a coyote displays any interest in a human - whether friendly or aggressive - that's unusual, and that's when you need to be on alert."

Martin Garabedian, chief of Law Enforcement for N.H. Fish and Game, says that Conservation Officers and Hopkinton Police Department personnel are in the area, looking for signs of the rabid coyote. "In the interest of public safety, when the officers find the animal in question, they will dispatch it and send it for rabies testing," he said.

If someone sees a coyote, Tate recommends yelling at it to instill fear. Healthy coyotes will retreat when faced with loud noises or thrown objects. "Obviously, you never want to approach a wild animal. But if you are in a situation where you are outdoors near a coyote, shout at it, make sure it knows you're a threat," Tate advises. "If it comes at you, hit it hard on the head and snout."